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Boston Terrier Health Issues

  • July 14, 2020
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Boston Terrier Health Issues

Whether you’re contemplating adding a Boston Terrier to your family or already have one, it’s good to be aware of the top known health issues for this lovable breed.

So what are the Boston Terrier’s top health issues?

  • Boston Terrier Eye Problems (glaucoma, distichiasis, entropion, keratitis sicca, cherry eye, cataracts, late onset cataracts, and juvenile cataracts)
  • Boston Terrier Ear Problems (deafness)
  • Patellar Luxation in Boston Terriers
  • Hermivertabrae
  • Brachycephalic Syndrome
  • Demodectic Mange
  • Allergies
  • Cushing’s Disease
  • Megaesophagus

To help, I’ll go into detail about each of these health problems in Boston Terriers.

This is a fairly long article as I wanted to share all of their health issues on one page.

I am not a vet.  The information here is provided for educational purposes.  Please contact your vet immediately if your Boston Terrier have any health problems that concern you.


Boston Terrier Eye Issues

Boston Terriers are known for large and beautiful protruding eyes. As such, protecting them is extremely important.

Protecting their eyes

– Avoid prolonged sun exposure
– Carry dog eye wash with you at all times
– Keep your yard free of pointy and thorny plants

– Let them stick their head out of the window of a moving car
– Let them walk in dusty conditions
– Don’t let them run in and out of bushes because they might scratch their eyes

What is Distichiasis

Distichiasis is a condition where there are abnormally placed hairs on the inner surface of the eye lid. It can cause discomfort to a Boston and may cause corneal ulcers to develop. Corneal ulcers may not heal because of the irritation. Removal of the hairs is usually the solution.

There are usually multiple distichiae, and sometimes more than one arises from each duct.


Your Boston Terrier may or may not have obvious symptoms. If the eyelashes are soft it probably won’t be apparent. However in other cases, he or she might have a lot of eye boogers (discharge) from the affected eye, excessive tearing and blinking or even squinting. In some cases your dog might even be rubbing their paw at their eye.

The severity of their symptoms will vary depending on the stiffness of their eyelashes, location, the number of extra eyelashes and the size.


Bring your dog to the vet for thorough examination. Your vet might prescribe drops, or even manually remove the extra eyelashes.

When Orbit was a puppy she had goopy watery eyes and I suspected she had an eyelash on the lower eyelid that was bothering her.  Fortunately, it went away by the time she was six months of age on its own.

RESOURCE: Distichiasis Requires Permanent Eyelash Removal in Dogs – Veterinary Partner – VIN

VCA:  Know your pet distichia in dogs


Cherry eyes in Boston Terriers

Cherry eye occurs in about 6% of Boston Terriers according to the 2001 Health Survey. This is because the tear gland may prolapse or bulge out.

What is “cherry eye”

From the VCA’s website:

“Cherry eye” is a common term for /prolapse of the third eyelid gland/. Many mammals, including dogs, have an “extra” or third eyelid located inside the lower eyelid, also referred to as the “nictitating membrane.” The third eyelid serves as an additional protective layer for the eye, especially during hunting or fighting. The third eyelid also contains a special gland that produces a significant portion of the eye’s protective tear film. When this gland prolapses or “pops out”, the condition is known as “cherry eye”.

What does it look like?

A red swollen mass pops out of the lower eyelid near the bottom of your dog’s eye. It may be large and cover the size of the cornea or smaller and only appear periodically.

What causes “cherry eye”

Your dog’s eye has a gland I the third eyelid that is anchored to the lower inner rim of they eye by a fibrous attachment. Sometimes this attachment is weak which is when cherry eye occurs.

Can I Treat Cherry Eye at Home?

Don’t try any home remedies. Take your dog to the vet immediately. Eye injuries are serious.

In most cases the gland returns to normal function within a few weeks.

Sometimes surgery is necessary. Your vet will be the one to let you know what your options are.


Surgery may be required to reposition the third eyelid and the tear gland. This is a congenital defect that has a breed predisposition. Mode of inheritance is unknown.

RESOURCE: Cherry Eye in Dogs | VCA Animal Hospital


What is Corneal Dystrophy in Boston Terriers?

According to Dr. Julie Gionfrido, Diplomate ACVO, Boston Terriers have a form of endothelial dystrophy which usually begins in middle life (5 to 7 years) .

Its mode of inheritance is unknown. This disease begins as a fluid build-up which causes the cornea to appear white. It begins at the edge of the cornea, progresses centrally and often involves the entire cornea. It can cause a painful corneal ulcer which is difficult to treat.


Early symptoms will be when your Boston Terrier is blinking, tearing, rubbing of the eye and face, and avoidance of or obvious discomfort when in bright light.

Corneal dystrophy and corneal degeneration can lead to corneal ulcers (superficial to deep), ocular infections, and corneal scarring and vascularization arising from continuous sloughing of the mineral deposit.


This condition cannot be reversed with topical medications. However, treatment often begins with a topical hyperosmotic, non-irritating salt ointment, which may help to draw out the excess fluid in the cornea.

RESOURCE: In Vivo Imaging of Corneal Endothelial Dystrophy in Boston Terriers: A Spontaneous, Canine Model for Fuchs’ Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy

Eyecare For Animals:  Corneal endothelial dystrophy degeneration

What is Late Onset Cataracts in Boston Terriers

Breeding to clear-eyed older dogs is the best way to avoid cataracts of old age. These cataracts appear to be genetic. Perhaps some day we will have a genetic test for them. About 9% of Boston Terriers have these older age cataracts based on the 2000 Health Survey.

Cataracts may develop spontaneously in old age, but should not be confused with nuclear or lenticular sclerosis, an aging change that often occurs in the canine lens and does not cause blindness.

RESOURCE: Late-onset cataract in the Boston terrier – PubMed

What is juvenile cataracts in Boston Terriers.

Juvenile cataracts can occur in Boston terriers between eight weeks and twelve months of age. Some juvenile cataracts are visible to the eye; others can be identified only by a veterinary ophthalomologist using a CERF (Canine Eye Registration Foundation) test.


  • Bluish, gray or white color change inside of the eye
  • Tendency to bump into things
  • Reluctance to use stairs or jump up onto objects
  • Hesitancy in unfamiliar environments
  • Other signs of blindness
  • Inflammation or redness
  • Pain and squinting due to the underlying cause


Your vet will conduct a thorough eye examination to determine if your Boston Terrier has cataracts.


There is no medical treatment available to reverse cataracts, to prevent cataracts or to shrink cataracts.

Cataracts that are inherited or are not complicated by other eye diseases may be surgically removed. Cataracts associated with other eye diseases, such as inflammation (uveitis) cannot be removed surgically until the inflammation is brought under control.

Whether a dog is a candidate for cataract surgery can be determined by a veterinary ophthalmologist.

Treatment must also be instituted for any underlying causes, such as diabetes, etc.

If your dog has inoperable cataracts, he may require help in adjusting to his blindness. Be sure to keep objects around the house in a consistent place. Confine the dog to a fenced yard or leash walking. Most blind pets function extremely well in familiar environments.

There is little you can do to prevent cataracts. If your pet is diagnosed with inherited cataracts, notify the breeder so that no other litters are produced from the same sire and dam.

RESOURCES: Boston Terrier Club of America – Cataracts


What are corneal ulcers in Boston Terriers?

According to the Boston Terrier Club of America, corneal ulcers are the single largest eye problem in Boston Terriers.

Corneal ulcers can be difficult and expensive to treat and often result in the loss of the eye. This is a case where an “ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure”.

They can be mild or severe. A superficial ulcer is a scratch on only the outermost layer of the cornea (called the epithelium). A deep ulcer is one that extends through the epithelium into the next layer of the cornea (called the stroma, which is the main connective tissue of the cornea).

Symptoms of eye ulcers

The first tell tale sign is your dog is squinting and holding their eye shut. And the white part of their eye might turn really red. They might be squinting because they are sensitive to light, and their eyes might be tearing.

If you suspect an eye injury, you should bring your dog to the vet immediately. In fact the ideal time period is within 24 hours.

Your vet will be able to do a proper examination in where they put a special dye on the surface, and then illuminate it with a blue light. If there is a break in the outermost surface layer, the dye will stick to the layer and the scratch will be fully visible.

Treatment of your dog’s eye ulcers

Your vet will prescribe medication to reduce pain and sometimes reduce inflammation to support your dog’s own healing properties.

Protect your Boston Terrier’s eyes while they are healing by putting a cone on them.

In cases where the injury is very deep, your Boston Terrier might require eye surgery.

It happened to us

This happened to us recently.  Maggie got an eye scratch and I brought her in the next morning to get checked out.  The dye verified her injury and we were given drops and sent home.  We put drops in her eyes every 6 hours.  She had a cone or donut collar on 24/7 and by the 8th day she was cleared by the vet.

Can you treat eye ulcers at home?

NO. Go see your vet immediately. With eye injuries, time is of the essence. Don’t wait and see if your Boston Terrier’s eyes will improve. Call your vet and ask to be seen right away.

RESOURCE: Boston Terrier Club of America Eye Disease

Boston Terrier Club of America – Boston Terrier Eyes 

What is keratitis sicca in Boston Terriers

This is another name for “dry eye” which occurs in 1 in 50 Boston Terriers very early in life. Inadequate tear production is the cause. It can result in painful and chronic eye infections. It is believed to be inherited but the mode of inheritance is unknown.

It’s highly painful and seen in dogs 4 to 6 years of age. Female dogs are more prone to this than male dogs.

Causes of dry eyes

  • Your dog is born without tear glands
  • Misdirected reaction of the immune system: An inadequate reaction of their immune system agains the tear glands and their destruction over time
  • Congenital ocular defect: Your dog is born with it. Even though it is quite rare, the ocular defect is considered one of the primary forms of a dry eye. Unfortunately, there is no adequate conventional treatment available for this condition.
  • Infective: An infection of the central nervous system which causes an interruption of the nerves of the tear glands. Also, the dry eye often appears after infection with canine distemper virus and leishmania
  • Chronic diseases. Systemic viral infections, chronic blepharoconjunctivitis, chlamydia conjunctivitis, immune-mediated adenitis, and Cushing’s disease can cause the occurrence of this syndrome.
  • Drug-induced. It may occur as a result of toxic drug effects on a dog’s tear glands. Atropine, general anesthesia, and sulfa-containing drugs usually cause transient dry eye syndrome in pets. This could be either temporary or permanent
  • Radiation. Direct contact with x-rays may cause the appearance of dry eyes, especially in predisposed breeds, because it negatively affects the dog’s lacrimal glands. Fortunately, this is very rare
  • Metabolic.  One of the reported complications of hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus in dogs is keratoconjunctivitis sicca

Symptoms of dry eye or keratoconjunctivitis sicca

  • Yellowish mucous in your Boston Terrier’s eyes
  • Eye boogers
  • Redness in the area around your dog’s eyes
  • Excessive blinking.
  • Cloudy eyes without usual shining
  • Rubbing the eyes and the entire face
  • Sticky eyes with dried brown mucus or pus around the affected area
  • The swollen surface of the eyes and conjunctival blood vessels
  • The prominent third eyelids
  • The occurrence of hyperpigmentation and eye ulcers
  • Loss of vision


Your vet will conduct a test to determine the level of your dog’s tears.


Treatment will depend on the primary cause and if there are any secondary infections.

  • Antibiotic drops
  • Cyclosporine (immunosuppressant therapy)
  • Artificial tears
  • Surgery

What is glaucoma in Boston Terriers

Glaucoma is defined as an imbalance of the fluid pressure within the eye, also known as intraocular pressure (IOP). It affects 1% of Boston Terriers and is not checked for in the standard CERF examination.

In the short term, glaucoma can be extremely painful and cause a great deal of misery as the eye fills with fluid. In the long term, a dog may experience permanent vision loss or even complete blindness.

Symptoms of glaucoma

Early detection isn’t always obvious. You might see signs of your Boston Terrier rubbing its eyes as if they are irritated or in pain. And your pup might be reluctant to open their eyes in full sunlight.

As the condition worsens, your Boston might not let you touch their face or head.


Your vet will prescribe a treatment to slow down the development and or prevent the spread of infection. The range of treatment will vary between dogs.

RESOURCE: Acute Glaucoma: A True Emergency | Today’s Veterinary Practice

What is Entropion

Survey numbers show less than 1% of Bostons are affected by entropion.

This is a condition in which the lower lid margins roll inward and causes the hair to rub against the eyeball.

Symptoms of entropion

It can cause a reddened, inflamed eye and cause severe infections and deep ulcerated corneas.

Treatment of entropion

Ectropion is usually diagnosed in dogs less than one year of age. Simple surgery to the eye lid can usually take care of this problem which is also believed to be inherited.

Boston Terrier Ear Problems

There can be a high incidence of sensorineural deafness in Boston Terriers.

There is another gene that is found in some Boston Terriers called the piebald gene, and it is thought by some to be responsible for the white “overmarkings” found on some Boston Terriers.

This gene is identified as S(p). It is thought that this gene is responsible for half white heads and white heads, or excessively wide collars, etc. There is actually much that isn’t known about these color genes and exactly how they are expressed.

There may also be little understood modifier genes at work. In any event, the amount of white, especially on the head, appears to have a close relationship to deafness in Boston Terriers.

In any event, what seems apparent is that most deaf Bostons (perhaps about 80 per cent) come from that group of Boston Terriers (perhaps as many as 20% of the breed) that carry excessive white or have blue eye(s). Helpful for the elimination of pigment related deafness is the fact that most show/hobby breeders have been breeding for better markings for almost a hundred years.

If puppies have been BAER tested the breeder can tell you what the status of their hearing is. Puppies that are unilaterally deaf (deaf in one ear) will not show the defect in any discernible way and will make good family pets.

A BAER test needs to be given only once in the life of your Boston Terrier.

Your breeder should be able to tell you about your puppy’s parents BAER tests.

Puppies can be tested as early as seven weeks.

RESOURCES: Boston Terrier Club of America – Boston Terrier Ears and Deafness


What is Patellar Luxation in Boston Terriers

Patellar lunation is when your dog has a slipped kneecap.

It can only go back into place when your dog’s quadricep muscles in the hind legs relax and lengthen.


Typically a dog with a dislocated kneecap will display abnormal movement:

  • Your dog will hold up their hind legs for a few minutes
  • Your dog might look like they are skipping
  • Your dog’s back legs might all of a sudden look lame

There are four levels of severity:

Grade 1: Your vet can manipulate the patella out of the groove and it will automatically return to it’s correct place when your vet releases it.

Grade 2: Your vet manipulates the patella out of the groove but your vet will need to manipulate it back into place.

Grade 3: The patella pops out on it’s out but your vet can manipulate it back into place.

Grade 4: The patella isn’t staying in place and it cannot be manipulated back in.


It’s a genetic condition that typically shows up when your Boston Terrier is four years of age.


Your vet will determine what kind of surgery to perform depending on the severity of the case.

SOURCE: Kneecap Dislocation in Dogs | Patellar Luxation in Dogs | PetMD

What is Hermivertabrae in Boston Terriers

Hemivertebrae form when the right and the left halves of the developing vertebral body fail to fuse, producing a body which resembles a butterfly when seen from above.

The two unfused halves often grow unequally, producing a wedge-shaped vertical body. Depending on which way the broad side of the wedge is directed, this may cause a dorsal curvature (kyphosis) or a lateral curvature (scoliosis).

As the backbone is bent, so bends the spinal canal; and any deformity of the canal can compress the spinal cord and/or its blood supply, with serious effects.

This condition causes pain in the dog. It can cause their legs to be wobbly. And it can also cause them to lose hind leg function as well as cause them to be incontinent.

It appears that the disease is a consequence of selecting for the screw (curly) tail conformation of this breed. The screw-tail shape is due to abnormal shape of tail bones but this abnormality can also affect other parts of the spine with serious consequences as outlined above.

This is a CONGENITAL defect (present at birth) with a GENETIC (inheritable) basis, though it is unlikely that the genetic mechanism is a simple one-locus, dominant/recessive one.


Your vet can use a radiograph, CT scan, or MRI to examine your Boston Terrier’s spine.


Your vet will work on a treatment plan to help your dog be more comfortable and mobile.

Surgery may or may not be an option.

RESOURCE: Boston Terrier Club of America – Hemevertebrae

Boston Terrier – Hemivertebrae – UFAW

What is Brachycephalic Syndrome in Boston Terriers

After bulldogs and pugs, a study in 2010 found that Boston Terriers were the breed third most commonly affected with BAOS (Brachycephalic Airway Obstruction Syndrome

Brachycephalic means “short headed”.

You can read about this on the American College of Veterinary Surgeons. I’ve included their excerpt belowP

The term /Brachycephalic Syndrome/ refers to the combination of elongated soft palate, stenotic nares, and everted laryngeal saccules.

Elongated soft palate is a condition where the soft palate is too long so that the tip of it protrudes into the airway and interferes with movement of air into the lungs.

Stenotic Nares are malformed nostrils that are narrow or collapse inward during inhalation, making it difficult for the dog to breathe through its nose.

Everted Laryngeal Saccules is a condition in which tissue within the airway, just in front of the vocal cords, is pulled into the trachea (windpipe) and partially obstructs airflow.
Some dogs with brachycephalic syndrome may also have a narrow trachea (windpipe), collapse of the larynx (the cartilages that open and close the upper airway), or paralysis of the laryngeal cartilages.


  • Noisy breathing
  • Gagging while swallowing
  • Exercise intolerance
  • Cyanosis (blue tongue and gums from lack of oxygen)


Your vet can diagnose if your Boston Terrier has an elongated soft palate or needs stenotic are surgery.

Get your dog from a responsible breeder. The likelihood that your Boston Terrier will have BOAS is less from well bred Boston Terriers

Do not overexercise your dog during warm or hot days.

RESOURCE: Brachycephalic Syndrome | American College of Veterinary Surgeons – ACVS

Boston Terrier Health Issues

What is Demodectic Mange in Boston Terriers

One of the most difficult problems a Boston Terrier owner ever encounters is demodectic mange. This disease is caused by the presence of the mite Demodex Canis in the hair follicles of the dog in conjunction with an impaired or deficient immune system.

The disease is thought to be caused by a genetic defect in the immune system. The Boston Terrier is listed among the breeds with familial predilection to demodectic mange.

Juvenile onset:

Normally seen in poorly bred Boston Terrier puppies.


Mites lay eggs in the hair follicles of puppies. Hair loss starts to happen around their face between four to six months of age.

Your vet can verify if your puppy has mites by doing a skin scraping.

Demodectic mange in older Boston Terriers

According to the Boston Terrier Club of America, “Older dogs with demodectic mange may have a serious underlying disease problem that interferes with a well functioning immune system. Cushings, cancer, hypothyroid and even diabetes have been thought to be associated with a predilection for this mange. “


Your vet will prescribe a treatment plan depending on the severity of the demodictic mange which could range from a series of dips with medication, administration of antibiotics in conjunction with vitamin supplementation.

Treatment can span between six and twelve months.

RESOURCE: Boston Terrier Club of America – Demodectic Mange

Allergies in Boston Terriers

I’ve battled allergies and yeast infections in my two Boston Terriers for the past few years.

I’m happy to say that their breakouts are occurring less and less. I’ve written sixteen articles in total about it:

An allergy is a state of over-reactivity or hypersensitivity of the immune system to a particular substance called an allergen. Dogs with allergies develop a hypersensitivity reaction or response to substances (for example pollens, flea saliva, or food).

Home Remedies for Dog Allergies

Rash Advice for My Boston Terrier

Best Shampoo for Boston Terriers

My Boston Terrier Just Broke Out In Hives. Is It An Emergency? What can I do at Home?

10 Ways To Treat Your Boston Terrier’s Itchy Paws at Home

Treat my dog’s yeast skin infection at home

How My Vet is Helping Me with my Dog’s Allergies

Holistic and Organic Flea Treatment for the Yard and Dogs 

Itchy Dog? Learn the difference between dog skin and human skin

SOURCE: Inhalant Allergies (Atopy) in Dogs | VCA Animal Hospital

Dog and Cat Allergic Dermatitis | Skin allergies in animals | Canine Allergic Dermatitis | Long Beach Animal Hospital

Cushing Disease in Boston Terriers

Cushing disease is when your dog’s body produces too much cortisol.

It can weaken the immune system and cause pain and discomfort.

The three primary causes of Cushing’s disease in dogs include:

  • A small pituitary tumor that is typically benign that leads the gland to overproduce adrenocorticotropic hormone as well as excess production of cortisol
  • An adrenal gland tumor that may lead to the same overproduction of cortisol
  • The long-term use of high-dose steroids to treat pain, allergies and inflammation.
  • Chronic stress. When your dog is constantly overly excited for a prolonged period of time (good or bad stress) it can lead to an overproduction of cortisol.

Almost 85% of Cushing’s cases are pituitary based, meaning that the pituitary is sending too many hormones to the adrenal glands, which causes them to overproduce cortisol. An adrenal tumor can trigger excess cortisol production in adrenal-dependent Cushing’s disease.


  • Your dog starts to drink more water than usual
  • They urinate more and even start to pee in the house
  • A tragic look on your dog’s faces
  • Increased appetite
  • Panting
  • Bloated, pot-bellied abdomen
  • High blood pressure
  • Hair loss (usually symmetric)
  • Thinning of the skin and fur
  • Susceptibility to infections and diabetes
  • Weakening of skeletal muscles, exercise intolerance

Boost your Boston Terrier’s immune system

Feed fresh food.

Overly processed food (kibble) is bad for your dog. They are filled with unnecessary grains, fillers, additives and chemicals.

Opt for a fresh food diet. I cook for my dogs. Or you can feed them raw.

Add milk thistle

Milk thistle has silymarin and mainly used by vets for dogs that have liver disease.

It is has great antioxidant properties and is able to aid bile flow through the liver.

Add fish

Fish oil directly affects your dog’s skin and help fight against infections.

SOURCE: A Holistic Approach to Fighting Cushings Disease in Your Dog or Cat

Cushing’s Syndrome in Dogs: Symptoms, Treatment, and Care for Your Pet

What is Megaesophagus in Boston Terriers

Megaesophagus (ME) refers to a large, dilated esophagus with poor or no motility preventing normal passage of food and liquid into the stomach.

With ingesta not reaching the stomach to produce the sensation of being full, the dog will continue to eat. As a result, the esophagus enlarges greatly.

Dogs end up not getting enough calories so they waste away.

Dogs with ME also regurgitate large amounts of undigested food and some of that material can be inhaled into the lungs. This inhalation can result in aspiration pneumonia, a dangerous additional symptom that kills many affected animals.


  • Bad breath
  • Signs of pneumonia from aspirating food and/or liquid, including: fever, rabid breathing and abnormal lung sounds
  • Muscle weakness and wasting from slow starvation


Your vet will need to conduct an X-ray to look at your Boston Terrier’s trachea.


Your vet will work with you on a treatment plan that manages the symptoms, prevents regurgitation.

A high calorie diet is ideal.


Team develops treatment for canine megaesophagus

Megaesophagus | VCA Animal Hospital

Final Thoughts

Boston Terriers, just like people might become ill at some point in their lives.

Some of their health issues are known to the breed.

Reputable breeders who track their dog’s health, and test for known problems will not breed a dog that have any of the above issues.

Therefore buying a Boston Terrier puppy from a reputable breeder increases the likelihood that your puppy will be healthy.

However in cases where you rescued a Boston Terrier or didn’t buy them from a reputable breeder, it’s good to be aware of all of their health issues so you can identify symptoms early and know when the issues you see warrant an immediate vet visit.

Luckily with the exception of allergies, I have not experienced any of the above issues with Maggie or Orbit but they are still young.

I do have a savings account for their unplanned expenses.  I currently do NOT have dog insurance.  I have chosen to cover all of their medical expenses myself as they happen.

If you do not have your puppy yet, factor in saving at least $100 per month for any unplanned medical and if you do already have a Boston Terrier puppy either consider pet health insurance or start a saving account now.

At the end of the day – our dogs health is a top priority and we do everything we can to be aware of what the issues might be but we strive to raise them to have strong immune systems, keep them out of danger and harms way and hopefully we avoid any injuries or health problems along the way.


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Hannah Zulueta and her two dogs Maggie and Orbit

Hello, my name is Hannah and I dance with my dogs.

I am a Boston Terrier Breed Advocate.  I started this blog because there isn’t enough space to tell our story on our Instagram.

I have two Boston Terriers. Maggie is my socially awkward heart dog while Orbit is my shadow and soul dog.

You won’t read about cats here, but you will get a fairly large dosage of articles dedicated to this wonderful breed to help you learn more about them or provide practical tips as you raise your own. Read more about us.

By, July 14, 2020
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